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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_______________________________________________________
Form 10-K
_______________________________________________________
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number: 001-32172
_______________________________________________________
http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=13357008&doc=15
XPO Logistics, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
_______________________________________________________
Delaware
 
03-0450326
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
Five American Lane
 

Greenwich,
CT
 
06831
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
(855) 976-6951
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
_______________________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Trading symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, par value $0.001 per share
 
XPO
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
_______________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
 
Accelerated filer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
 
Smaller reporting company
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  No 
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $5.3 billion as of June 28, 2019, based upon the closing price of the common stock on that date.
As of February 5, 2020, there were 92,357,540 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Specified portions of the registrant’s proxy statement, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A in connection with the registrant’s 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “Proxy Statement”), are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Except with respect to information specifically incorporated by reference in this Annual Report, the Proxy Statement is not deemed to be filed as part hereof.




XPO LOGISTICS, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2019
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PART I
Page No.
Item 1
Item 1A
Item 1B
Item 2
Item 3
Item 4
 
PART II
 
Item 5
Item 6
Item 7
Item 7A
Item 8
Item 9
Item 9A
Item 9B
 
PART III
 
Item 10
Item 11
Item 12
Item 13
Item 14
 
PART IV
 
Item 15
Item 16


 
 
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PART I
Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K and other written reports and oral statements we make from time to time contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). All statements other than statements of historical fact are, or may be deemed to be, forward-looking statements. In some cases, forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terms such as “anticipate,” “estimate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “should,” “will,” “expect,” “objective,” “projection,” “forecast,” “goal,” “guidance,” “outlook,” “effort,” “target,” “trajectory” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terms. However, the absence of these words does not mean that the statements are not forward-looking. These forward-looking statements are based on certain assumptions and analyses made by the Company in light of its experience and its perception of historical trends, current conditions and expected future developments, as well as other factors it believes are appropriate in the circumstances. These forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions that may cause actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause or contribute to a material difference include those discussed below and the risks discussed in the Company’s other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). All forward-looking statements set forth in this Annual Report are qualified by these cautionary statements and there can be no assurance that the actual results or developments anticipated by the Company will be realized or, even if substantially realized, that they will have the expected consequence to or effects on the Company or its business or operations. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report. Forward-looking statements set forth in this Annual Report speak only as of the date hereof, and we do not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect subsequent events or circumstances, changes in expectations or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law.
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS
Company Overview
XPO Logistics, Inc., together with its subsidiaries (“XPO,” “XPO Logistics,” “the Company,” “we” or “our”), is a top ten global provider of cutting-edge supply chain solutions to the most successful companies in the world. XPO was incorporated as a Delaware corporation on May 8, 2000.
The Company has two reporting segments: Transportation and Logistics. Within each segment, we have robust service offerings that are positioned to capitalize on fast-growing areas of customer demand. Substantially all of our services operate under the single brand of XPO Logistics. As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately 100,000 employees and 1,504 locations in 30 countries, and over 50,000 customers. Our operations help our customers move their goods most efficiently throughout their supply chains.
Transportation Segment
Our Transportation segment includes our services for truck brokerage and truckload; less-than-truckload (“LTL”); last mile; intermodal and drayage; expedite; managed transportation; and global forwarding. We offer these services in both North America and Europe with the exception of intermodal/drayage, which is strictly North America, and truckload, which is in Europe. Within each region, the complementary transportation services we provide represent an opportunity to provide multiple solutions to our larger customers.
For the full year 2019, our largest service offerings within the Transportation segment were LTL and freight brokerage/truckload, which contributed 44% and 40%, respectively, to segment revenue. The segment overall contributed approximately 64% to our consolidated revenue in 2019, compared with 65% and 66% in 2018 and 2017, respectively.


 
 
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Globally, we are the second largest freight brokerage provider, and a top five provider of managed transportation. Many of our other transportation services hold market-leading positions in North America and Europe.
In North America, we are the largest provider of last mile logistics for heavy goods, the largest manager of expedited shipments, a top three provider of LTL transportation and a top three provider of intermodal services, with a national drayage network. We are also a freight forwarder with a global network of ocean, air, ground and cross-border services.
In Europe, we provide full truckload transportation as a brokered service using independent carriers, and as dedicated and non-dedicated capacity using our fleet — one of the largest owned road fleets in Europe. Our other transportation offerings in Europe are LTL transportation, which we provide with one of the largest LTL networks in Western Europe, and last mile logistics. Our total lane density in Europe covers the regions that produce approximately 90% of the gross domestic product of the European Union (the “EU”).
We use a blended model of owned, contracted and brokered capacity for over-the-road transportation. This gives us extensive flexibility in providing optimal solutions. The non-asset portion of our model is predominately variable cost and includes our brokerage operations, as well as contracted capacity with independent providers. As of December 31, 2019, globally, we had approximately 10,000 independent carriers and owner-operators under contract to provide drayage, expedite, last mile and LTL services to our customers, and more than 50,000 independent brokered carriers representing over 1,000,000 trucks on the road.
The asset portion of our transportation model encompasses approximately 15,500 tractors and 40,000 trailers; these are primarily related to our LTL operations in North America and our full truckload operations in Europe. We employ professional drivers in both regions to transport goods for our customers, using our assets. Our owned fleet also provides supplemental capacity for our freight brokerage operations as needed.
Logistics Segment
XPO is the second largest global provider of contract logistics based on facility space, with the largest outsourced e-fulfillment platform in Europe. We have deep expertise in key verticals and strong positions in fast-growing sectors. Our Logistics segment, which we also refer to as supply chain or contract logistics, contributed approximately 36% to our consolidated revenue in 2019, compared with 35% and 34% in 2018 and 2017, respectively.
We provide a range of logistics services that help our customers meet their objectives while controlling costs and improving efficiency. Our services include highly engineered, customized solutions, as well as value-added warehousing and distribution, e-commerce and omnichannel fulfillment, cold-chain solutions, reverse logistics, packaging and labeling, factory support, aftermarket support, inventory management, order personalization and supply chain optimization. In addition, we provide highly engineered solutions and optimization services, such as production flow management. Once we secure a logistics contract, the average customer tenure is approximately five years and the relationship can expand to include a wider range of services, such as inbound and outbound logistics.
Our competitive positioning in logistics is as a technology leader. We are innovative and agile, with the ability to handle complex implementations, and we are a proponent of advanced automation. Reverse logistics, also called returns management, is a fast-growing area of contract logistics and one in which we have a reputation as a quality provider. In 2019, we managed about 170 million returns. It is a multifaceted service that includes inspections, repackaging, refurbishment, resale or disposal, refunds and warranty management. These are high-value services for any company with consumer end-markets, as consumers are increasingly test-driving the products they buy online.
As of December 31, 2019, we operated 200 million square feet (19 million square meters) of contract logistics facility space worldwide. Approximately 104 million square feet (10 million square meters) was located in North America and Asia, where we are a market leader in logistics capacity, and 96 million square feet (9 million square meters) was located in Europe, where we are a top five industrial tenant. Customers served by our Logistics segment include many of the preeminent names in retail and e-commerce, food and beverage, technology, aerospace, wireless, industrial and manufacturing, chemical, agribusiness, life sciences and healthcare.
Our logistics network benefits from strong positioning in the high-growth e-commerce sector. We are the largest outsourced e-fulfillment provider in Europe, and we have a major platform for e-fulfillment in North America, where we provide solutions for high-volume omnichannel distribution and reverse logistics. E-commerce is


 
 
5
 
 
 
 
 
 



predicted to continue to grow globally at a double-digit rate through at least 2022, making it difficult for many companies to handle fulfillment in-house while providing high levels of service.
Our experience with fast-growing e-commerce categories makes us a valuable partner to customers who want to outsource order fulfillment and personalization, product returns, testing, refurbishment, warranty management, refunding and other service-intensive parts of the supply chain. Together with XPO Direct™, our shared space distribution offering, our Logistics segment provides e-commerce companies with superior control, flexible warehousing and staffing, advanced automation and predictive analytics that help manage peaks in demand.
Operating Philosophy
We believe that our rapid pace of innovation differentiates XPO’s services and makes the most of the talent and assets within our organization. Our technology is a way for us to strengthen our relationships with customers and serve them as completely as possible. Our industry is evolving, and customers value our ability to solve complex problems with sophisticated, customized solutions underpinned by our digitalization and data science.
We concentrate our technology efforts in four areas: our digital freight marketplace, automation and intelligent machines, dynamic data science, and visibility and customer service, specifically in the e-commerce supply chain. Our 2019 investment in technology was among the highest in our industry at approximately $550 million. Our global team of approximately 1,800 technology professionals works closely with our operations in North America and Europe, and can deploy proprietary software very rapidly on our cloud-based platform.
We prioritize innovations that can benefit our customers and create value for our shareholders. For example, our XPO Connect™ digital marketplace gives our transportation customers a birds-eye view of real-time market conditions and available capacity. It matches shippers and carriers with digital efficiency, benefitting both parties and contributing to financial performance. See the “Transportation Services” and “Technology and Intellectual Property” sections below for more information.
In addition to our focus on technology, we have a strong commitment to sustainability. This is an area where we have already set an example in the industry. In the United States (“U.S.”), XPO has been named a Top 75 Green Supply Chain Partner by Inbound Logistics for four consecutive years, and in 2016 we were awarded the label “Objectif CO2” for outstanding environmental performance of transport operations in Europe by the French Ministry of the Environment and the French Environment and Energy Agency. In Spain, all of our sites meet Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (“LEED”) energy certification standards for 100% consumption of renewable energy. In the United Kingdom (“U.K.”), the warehouse of the future we created with Nestlé is scheduled to open in mid-year 2020. It utilizes environmentally friendly ammonia refrigeration systems, energy-saving light-emitting diode (“LED”) lighting, air-source heat pumps for administration areas and rainwater harvesting.
A number of our logistics facilities are ISO14001-certified, which ensures environmental and other regulatory compliances. We monitor fuel emissions from forklifts in our warehouses, and we have protocols in place to take immediate corrective action if needed. Our packaging engineers ensure that the optimal carton size is used for each product slated for distribution, and when feasible, we purchase recycled packaging. As a byproduct of our reverse logistics operations, we recycle millions of electronic components and batteries each year.
In transportation, we have made substantial investments in fuel-efficient Freightliner Cascadia tractors in North America; these use Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) 2013-compliant and Greenhouse Gas 2014-compliant Selective Catalytic Reduction technology. Our North American LTL locations have energy-saving policies in place and are implementing a phased upgrade to LED lighting. In Europe, we own one of the industry’s most modern road fleets: 98% compliant with Euro V, EEV and Euro VI standards.
We also own a large fleet of natural gas trucks operating in France, the U.K., Spain and Portugal and, in 2019, we invested in 100 new Stralis Natural Power Euro VI tractors for our LTL network in France. These tractors use a combination of liquified and compressed natural gas (“LNG/CNG”) to generate lower NOx emissions than the Euro VI standard and reduce noise in densely populated areas. In Spain, we use government-approved mega-trucks that can significantly reduce CO2 emissions due to their larger carrying capacity. Our last mile operations in Europe are piloting electric vehicles for deliveries in urban areas, reducing those emissions to zero.


 
 
6
 
 
 
 
 
 



Transportation Services
Our Transportation segment includes freight brokerage (which encompasses truck brokerage, intermodal, drayage and expedite), last mile, LTL, full truckload, global forwarding and managed transportation services.
Our XPO Connect™ digital freight platform is continually improving our transportation services through visibility and automation, making us more productive and differentiating our services. We are able to customize the user experience based on business-to-business (“B2B”) shipper and carrier requirements load by load, and business-to-consumer (“B2C”) consumer expectations for last mile service. The platform’s multimodal architecture is the foundation for ongoing innovations across our transportation ecosystem. See the “Technology and Intellectual Property” section below for more information.
Freight Brokerage, including Truck Brokerage, Intermodal, Drayage and Expedite
Our truck brokerage operations are non-asset-based — we place shippers’ freight with qualified carriers, primarily trucking companies. Customers offer loads to us via electronic data interchange, email, telephone and the internet on a daily basis. Truck brokerage services are priced on either a spot market or contract basis for shippers. We collect payments from our customers and pay carriers for transporting customer loads. Our proprietary, cloud-based brokerage platform, Freight Optimizer, gives us real-time visibility into truckload supply and demand. Freight Optimizer is also the core technology engine behind XPO Connect™.
Our intermodal operations are asset-light; we provide customers with container capacity, brokered rail transportation, drayage transportation via independent contractors, and on-site operational services. We utilize containers and chassis we lease or own, together with access to supplemental capacity, to meet our customers’ intermodal requirements.
We offer our door-to-door intermodal services to a wide range of customers in North America, including large industrial and retail shippers, transportation intermediaries, such as intermodal marketing companies, and steamship lines. To facilitate these services, we work with the railroads in providing the long-haul portion of freight shipments, and we contract with independent drayage trucking companies for local pickup and delivery of the containers. We also provide customized electronic tracking and analysis of market prices and negotiated rates through our proprietary Rail Optimizer technology, which we use to determine the optimal configurations of truck and rail.
Our expedite operations are predominantly non-asset-based we use a network of contracted owner-operators for expedited ground transportation, and an electronic bid platform for air charter loads. Another large component of our expedite offering is our proprietary transportation management system (“TMS”), which awards loads electronically based on online bids by carriers. These transactions primarily happen on a machine-to-machine basis. Our purpose-built TMS initiates a new auction on the internet, and we take a fee for facilitating the process.
Our expedite services can be characterized as time-critical, time-sensitive or high priority freight shipments, many of which require special handling. Urgent needs for expedited transportation typically arise due to tight tolerances in a customer’s supply chain, or some kind of disruption to the supply chain.
Expedite customers most often request our services on a per-load transactional basis through our offices or via our proprietary online portals. Only a small percentage of loads are scheduled for future delivery dates. We operate an ISO 9001:2008-certified call center that gives our customers on-demand status updates related to their expedited shipments.
Last Mile Logistics
Our last mile operations in North America and Europe primarily specialize in heavy goods, including appliances, furniture, large electronics and other items that are larger-than-parcel. We have an industry-leading network of 85 last mile hubs in North America positioned within 125 miles of approximately 90% of the U.S. population and we are expanding our last mile delivery service in Europe.
Last mile comprises the final stage of the delivery from a local distribution center or retail store to the end-customer’s home or business. It is a fast-growing industry sector that serves blue chip retailers and e-commerce companies, as well as smaller retailers with limited in-house capabilities for deliveries and installations. Incremental services are often required, such as positioning the product in the room of choice, unpacking, assembly, utility


 
 
7
 
 
 
 
 
 



connection, installation, testing, and removal of an old product. We use independent contractors to perform these services, making our last mile operations asset-light.
Important aspects of last mile service are responsiveness to seasonal demand, economies of scale, advanced technology and an ability to provide a consistently high-quality experience. We use our proprietary technology to collect customer feedback, monitor carrier performance, manage capacity and communicate digitally with consumers to protect the brands of the retailers, e-tailers and manufacturers we serve.
Less-Than-Truckload (LTL)
In North America, our LTL operations are asset-based. We own one of the industry’s largest fleets of tractors and trailers for linehaul, pickup and delivery, employ professional drivers and have a national network of terminals. We provide our customers with critical density and day-definite regional, inter-regional and transcontinental LTL freight services. As of December 31, 2019, our LTL operations in North America offered more than 75,000 next-day and two-day lanes, encompassing approximately 99% of all U.S. zip codes. We also provide cross-border service to and from Mexico and Canada, as well as intra-Canada service.
In Europe, our LTL operations utilize a blend of asset-based and asset-light capacity XPO fleet and contracted carriers supported by a network of terminals. We provide LTL services domestically in France, the U.K. and Spain, and offer multinational LTL distribution throughout Europe.
Full Truckload
Our asset-based full truckload service operates almost entirely in Europe, where we are a leading provider. For many customers, we function as a dedicated contract carrier, providing truckload capacity by utilizing our tractors, trailers and drivers. In 2019, dedicated truckload was a significant contributor to our Transportation revenue in Europe. We also provide capacity on a transactional basis for the transportation of packaged goods, high cube products and bulk goods. We provide full truckload services domestically in France, the U.K., Spain, Poland, Romania, Italy, Portugal and Slovakia, and internationally throughout Europe.
Global Forwarding
Our global forwarding operations are asset-light; we provide logistics services for domestic, cross-border and international shipments through our relationships with ground, air and ocean carriers and a network of XPO and agent-owned offices. Our freight forwarding capabilities are not restricted by size, weight, mode or location, and therefore are potentially attractive to a wide market base.
As part of our global forwarding network, we operate subsidiaries as non-vessel-operating common carriers (“NVOCC”) to transport our customers’ freight by contracting with vessel operators. We are also a customs broker licensed by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Service. This enables us to provide customs brokerage services to direct domestic importers, other freight forwarders and NVOCCs, and vessel-operating common carriers.
Managed Transportation
XPO is a top five global provider of managed transportation. We provide this non-asset service to shippers who want to outsource some or all of their transportation modes and related activities. These activities can include freight handling, such as consolidation and deconsolidation, labor planning, inbound and outbound shipment facilitation, documentation and customs management, claims processing and third-party logistics (“3PL”) supplier management.
The three arms of our managed transportation offering are control tower solutions, managed expedite through our proprietary, web-based platform, and dedicated capacity. Our control tower experts design the optimal routes for a given supply chain, source the most efficient carriers and ensure a high level of performance. Our dedicated service is a turnkey solution we tailor for each customer, complete with drivers, tractors, trailers, maintenance, management, fuel and Key Performance Indicator (“KPI”) reporting.
Logistics Services
Our Logistics segment provides a wide range of services differentiated by our technology and our ability to customize solutions for customers. These services include value-added warehousing, distribution and inventory management, omnichannel and e-commerce fulfillment, order personalization, reverse logistics, cold chain


 
 
8
 
 
 
 
 
 



solutions, packaging and labeling, factory support and aftermarket support. In addition, the segment provides highly engineered, customized solutions and supply chain optimization services, including advanced automation and predictive volume flow management.
Our logistics customers operate primarily in industries with high-growth outsourcing opportunities, such as retail and e-commerce, food and beverage, technology, aerospace, wireless, manufacturing and other industrial, chemical, agribusiness, life sciences and healthcare. We have extensive experience in these verticals, and we understand the demanding requirements for quality standards, real-time visibility, special handling, security, complex stock-keeping, time-assured deliveries and agility during seasonal surges in certain sectors.
Contract logistics processes are ripe for transformation through technology. Order fulfillment times are compressing, most notably in the direct-to-consumer space. The most cost-effective way to meet customer expectations is through advanced automation and intelligent machines — robots and cobots (collaborative robots), automated sortation systems, automated guided vehicles (“AGVs”) and goods-to-person systems. In 2019, we integrated collaborative robotics and goods-to-person systems in a number of our sites to support our warehouse employees.
We have also developed analytics that predict future surges in demand based on data histories and forecasted customer spend. About 10% to 35% of all e-commerce orders result in returned goods, which creates reverse peaks at certain times of year. We have been able to shave several days off the reverse process through automation, accelerating our customers’ ability to get product back on the shelf for resale.
In addition to our investments in automation and analytics, we have differentiated XPO from other logistics providers through our ability to create a synchronized environment across automation platforms. Our proprietary warehouse management platform (“WMx”), integrates robotics and other advanced automation into our operations with a high degree of control, even when complex, third-party software is involved. Our warehouse platform is a key competitive advantage, particularly in multichannel environments.
Other technologies that differentiate our logistics offering are our proprietary tools for order management tool (“OMx”), which gives customers deep visibility into fulfillment flows, and our business analytics dashboard (“BMx”), which gives customers XPO tools to manage their supply chains. Our connection management software (“CMx”) facilitates the seamless integration of SAP, Oracle and other customer systems, enabling us to engage in sophisticated demand planning.
XPO Direct™
XPO Direct™ is our shared-space distribution network in North America; we designed it to capitalize on the strengths of our Logistics and Transportation segments in combination. Our technology links strategically located logistics sites and last mile hubs, giving customers the flexibility to reposition inventory close to demand as geographic patterns change. Our facilities serve as stockholding sites and cross-docks that can be utilized by multiple customers at the same time. Transportation needs are supported by our brokered, contracted and owned capacity.
XPO Direct™ gives companies a way to manage B2C and B2B fulfillment using our scale and capacity, without the capital investment of adding high-fixed-cost distribution centers. We can position goods within one-day and two-day ground transportation range of approximately 90% of the U.S. population and in close proximity to retail stores for rapid inventory replenishment.
Our Strategy
Our strategy is to help customers manage their goods most efficiently throughout their supply chains, using our network of people, technology and physical assets. We deliver value to customers in the form of process efficiencies, cost efficiencies, reliable outcomes, technological innovations and service that is both highly responsive and proactive. As part of our strategy, we continuously seek to become more efficient in our own operations. We do this by looking for ways to leverage our strengths and solve as many supply chain challenges as possible for our customers. For example, a transportation customer in North America may utilize our truck brokerage, intermodal and expedite solutions. Additionally, we have positioned XPO to capitalize on the ongoing growth in e-commerce and on secular trends in demand, such as outsourcing and just-in-time inventory practices.


 
 
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In addition, we have a comprehensive framework of processes for recruiting, training and mentoring our employees, and for marketing to the hundreds of thousands of prospective customers in our existing markets. Most important to our growth, we have instilled a culture that focuses our efforts on delivering results for our customers and our Company.
Management’s growth and optimization strategy for the Transportation segment is to:
Market our diversified, multimodal solutions and expertise to customers of all sizes, both new and existing accounts;
Market the advantages of our proprietary XPO Connect™ digital marketplace, which synthesizes data science, digital automation and real-time visibility for a superior shipper-carrier-consumer experience;
Recruit and retain quality drivers, and best utilize our driver and equipment capacities;
Attract and retain quality independent owner-operators and independent brokered carriers for our carrier network;
Recruit and retain talented sales and customer service representatives, and continuously improve employee productivity with state-of-the-art training and technology; and
Integrate industry-best practices, with a focus on automation and analytics that drive productivity and share gains.
Management’s growth and optimization strategy for the Logistics segment is to:
Develop additional business in verticals where we already have deep logistics expertise and a strong track record of successful relationships;
Capture more share of wallet with existing customers who could use our logistics solutions for more of their supply chain needs;
Market the advantages of our proprietary WMx technology suite, which we use to manage advanced automation, robotics, labor productivity, safety and changes in demand in complex warehouse environments;
Partner with our customers in meeting their goals for supply chain performance, growth management and stakeholder satisfaction, and help them overcome challenges specific to their business; and
Integrate industry-best practices, with a focus on automation and analytics that drive productivity and share gains.
Potential Strategic Alternatives
In January 2020, we announced that XPO has commenced a review of strategic alternatives, including the possible sale or spin-off of one or more of our business units, in order to maximize shareholder value. A timetable has not been set for the completion of the review process and we have not determined which, if any, business units would be sold or spun off. However, we do not intend to sell or spin off our North American less-than-truckload unit.
Technology and Intellectual Property
One of the ways in which we empower our employees to deliver superior service is through our proprietary technology. We believe that the continual enhancement of our technology is critical to our success. It represents one of our largest categories of investment. We have built a highly scalable platform on the cloud to speed the deployment of new ways to increase efficiency, control costs and leverage our footprint. We can develop an innovation for one of our service lines and distribute it across different geographies and services to derive widespread benefits. This same platform also provides a way to address opportunities in real time, with constant feedback loops that engage our operators and customers.
In 2019, we made considerable technological progress, including these highlights:
XPO Smart™ is our proprietary suite of intelligent tools and analytics that self-adjusts site by site to drive productivity across our operations. It incorporates dynamic data science, predictive analytics and machine learning


 
 
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to aid our managers in decision-making. We use XPO Smart™ to improve our labor and inventory management in a safe, disciplined, and cost-effective manner.
As of December 31, 2019, we had implemented XPO Smart™ in all our LTL dock operations and over 100 of our logistics sites in North America, with a roll-out underway in our logistics network in Europe.
Intelligent automation is a priority for us in logistics. This includes autonomous robots and collaborative robots, automated sortation systems, automated guided vehicles, goods-to-person systems and virtual reality assistance. We integrate and control these technologies in-house using WMx, our proprietary warehouse management platform. Advanced automation and robotics deliver critical improvements in speed, control, accuracy and productivity and, importantly, also enhance worker safety and the overall quality of employment.
For Nestlé, the world’s largest food and beverage company, we have co-developed a fully automated warehouse of the future in the U.K., scheduled to open in mid-2020. It is expected to have the highest throughput of any facility in Nestlé’s global fulfilment network. Our European innovation lab is being relocated to this site, where it will function as both a think tank and a technology launch pad.
XPO Connect™, our proprietary digital freight marketplace, incorporates our core Freight Optimizer platform, shipper interface, pricing engine, carrier interface and our carrier mobile app, called Drive XPO™. The architecture provides visibility across multiple transportation modes, establishing the groundwork to continually improve our service, capture share and reduce costs. Our truck brokerage, last mile, managed transportation and global forwarding operations are now using the XPO Connect™ platform.
This fully automated, self-learning digital platform connects shippers with carriers, both virtually and through our operations. We give shippers access to our carrier transportation network and predictive data, while carriers connect through the app. As of December 31, 2019, we had more than 40,000 U.S. truck carriers registered for XPO Connect™. The current capabilities of the marketplace, and the tremendous potential of future applications, establish this technology as a significant differentiator across our transportation services.
In LTL, our technology roadmap focuses on the main components of the service lifecycle. Our North American LTL linehaul network moved freight approximately 2.5 million miles a day on average in 2019, with approximately 15% of that volume traveling direct. With intelligent route-building, such as bypass optimization, we can reduce empty miles, improve load factor and mitigate cargo damage. Our proprietary linehaul bypass models work with massive amounts of data to arrive at recommendations based on volume and density, taking freight dimensions into account to identify gaps in trailer utilization.
Other areas of LTL that are ripe for optimization through our technology include pickup-and-delivery routing, pricing management, trailer utilization, exception management and dock productivity. While each component delivers its own benefits, we also expect a strong synergistic effect on our LTL operations as a whole. For example, as we optimize truck routes, this benefits asset utilization, driver utilization and customer service, and should reduce our carbon footprint by decreasing empty miles.
In last mile, we recently launched XPO Connect™ in our last mile service for heavy goods and we’ve moved our first large customer onto the platform. We expect to have the technology pushed out to all last mile customers in early 2020, providing real-time ETAs for home deliveries, and enabling custom notifications and e-rescheduling. We have other proprietary last mile technology that we use to engage consumers in the delivery process, gather real-time feedback post-delivery and maintain superior satisfaction levels, which helps our retail and e-tail customers build brand loyalty. Consumers can track their online orders of heavy goods using our web portal, text messaging and voice-activated smart speakers, and use our augmented reality tool to visualize an item inside their home. We are the only last mile provider for heavy goods to invest in digital consumerization to this degree.
In October 2019, we became the first global logistics company to partner with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (“MIT”) in its Industrial Liaison Program to advance business innovation. This is a unique opportunity for us to collaborate with MIT’s world-class research capabilities and realize new levels of productivity for our customers. At the same time, we will be providing input into the future of robotics, machine learning and systems engineering.


 
 
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Customers and Markets
We provide services to a variety of customers, ranging in size from small, entrepreneurial organizations to Fortune 500 companies and global leaders. We have a diversified base of more than 50,000 customers that minimizes our concentration risk. In 2019, our top five customers accounted for approximately 8% of our revenue.
In addition, our markets are highly diversified. The customers we serve span every major industry and touch every part of the economy. Our revenue derives from a mix of key verticals, such as retail and e-commerce, food and beverage, consumer packaged goods and industrial.
Our transportation services are marketed primarily in North America and Europe, whereas our logistics and global forwarding networks serve global markets with concentrations in North America, Europe and Asia. For the full year 2019, approximately 59% of our revenue was generated in the U.S., 14% in Europe (excluding France and the U.K.), 12% in France and 12% in the U.K.
Competition
Transportation and logistics are highly competitive and fragmented marketplaces, with thousands of companies competing domestically and internationally. XPO competes on quality of service, reliability, scope and scale of operations, technological capabilities and price. Our competitors include local, regional, national and international companies that offer the same services we provide; some have larger customer bases, significantly more resources and more experience than we have. Additionally, some of our customers have sufficient internal resources to perform services we offer. Due in part to the fragmented nature of the industry, we must strive daily to retain existing business relationships and forge new relationships.
The health of the transportation and logistics industries will continue to be a function of domestic and global economic growth. However, we believe that we have positioned XPO in fast-growing sectors to benefit from secular trends in demand, such as e-commerce and outsourcing.
Regulation
Our operations are regulated and licensed by various governmental agencies in the U.S. and in other countries where we conduct business. These regulations impact us directly and indirectly by regulating third-party transportation providers we arrange and/or contract with to transport freight for our customers.
Regulation Affecting Motor Carriers, Owner-Operators and Transportation Brokers. In the U.S., our subsidiaries that operate as motor carriers and freight transportation brokers are licensed by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (“FMCSA”) of the U.S. Department of Transportation (“DOT”). Our motor carrier subsidiaries and the third-party motor carriers we contract with in the U.S. must comply with the safety and fitness regulations of the DOT, including those related to controlled substances and alcohol, hours-of-service compliance, vehicle maintenance, hazardous materials compliance, driver fitness, unsafe driving, and minimum insurance requirements. Weight and equipment dimensions also are subject to government regulations. We also may become subject to new or more restrictive regulations relating to emissions, drivers’ hours-of-service, independent contractor eligibility requirements, onboard reporting of operations, air cargo security and other matters affecting safety or operating methods. Other agencies, such as the U.S. EPA, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), the California Air Resources Board (“CARB”) and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (“DHS”), also regulate our equipment, operations and independent contractor drivers. Like the third-party carriers with which we contract, we are subject to a variety of vehicle registration and licensing requirements in certain states and local jurisdictions where we operate. In foreign jurisdictions where we operate, our operations are regulated by the appropriate governmental authorities.
In 2010, the FMCSA introduced the Compliance Safety Accountability program (“CSA”), which uses a Safety Management System (“SMS”) to rank motor carriers on seven categories of safety-related data, known as Behavioral Analysis and Safety Improvement Categories, or “BASICs.”
Although the CSA ranks are not currently publicly available, this development is likely to be temporary. As a result, our fleet could be ranked worse or better than our competitors, and the safety ratings of our motor carrier operations could be impacted. Our network of third-party transportation providers may experience a similar result. A reduction in safety and fitness ratings may result in difficulty attracting and retaining qualified independent contractors and


 
 
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could cause our customers to direct their business away from XPO and to carriers with more favorable CSA scores, which would adversely affect our results of operations.
In addition, nearly all carriers and drivers that are required to maintain records of duty status, including certain of XPO’s motor carrier subsidiaries and drivers, have been required to install electronic logging devices (“ELDs”). ELD use may increase costs for independent contractors and other third-party carriers who provide services to XPO and may impact driver recruitment.
Regulations Affecting our Subsidiaries Providing Ocean and Air Transportation. XPO Customs Clearance Solutions, LLC (“XCCS”) and XPO GF America, Inc. (“XGFA”), two of our subsidiaries, are licensed as U.S. Customs brokers by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (the “CBP”) of the DHS in each U.S. district where they perform services. All U.S. Customs brokers are required to maintain prescribed records and are subject to periodic audits by the CBP. In non-U.S. jurisdictions where we perform customs brokerage services, our operations are licensed, where necessary, by the appropriate governmental authorities.
Our subsidiaries offering expedited air charter transportation are subject to regulation by the Transportation Security Administration (“TSA”) of the DHS governing air cargo security for all loads, regardless of origin and destination. XPO Global Forwarding, Inc. (“XGF”), XGFA and XPO Air Charter, LLC are regulated as “indirect air carriers” by the TSA. These agencies provide requirements, guidance and, in some cases, administer licensing requirements and processes applicable to the freight forwarding industry.
Regarding our international operations, XGF and XGFA are members of the International Air Transportation Association (“IATA”), a voluntary association of airlines and freight forwarders that outlines operating procedures for forwarders acting as agents or third-party intermediaries for IATA members. A substantial portion of XPO’s international air freight business is transacted with other IATA members.
Additionally, XGF, XGFA and XCCS are each licensed as an Ocean Transportation Intermediary (“OTI”) and are each Ocean Freight Forwarders (“OFF”) licensed by the U.S. Federal Maritime Commission (“FMC”), which establishes the qualifications, regulations and bonding requirements for arranging transportation to or from the U.S. as an OTI (OTIs include both NVOCCs and OFFs). XGF and XGFA are also licensed as NVOCCs.
Our OTI operations are subject to regulations of the U.S. Department of State, the U.S. Department of Commerce and the U.S. Department of Treasury, and to various laws and regulations of the other countries where we operate. These laws and regulations govern what commodities may be shipped to what destinations and to what end-users, unfair international trade practices, limitations on entities with which we may conduct business and related matters.
Other Regulations. We are subject to a variety of other U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-bribery and anti-corruption statutes. We are also subject to state and U.S. federal laws and regulations addressing some types of cargo transported and/or stored by our subsidiaries, or transported pursuant to a government contract or subcontract.
Classification of Independent Contractors. Tax and other federal and state regulatory authorities, as well as private litigants, continue to assert that independent contractor drivers in the trucking industry are employees rather than independent contractors, while applying a variety of standards in their determinations of independent contractor status. Federal legislators have introduced legislation in the past to make it easier for tax and other authorities to reclassify independent contractors as employees, including legislation to increase the recordkeeping requirements and heighten the penalties for companies who misclassify workers and are found to have violated overtime or wage requirements. Additionally, federal legislators have sought to abolish the current safe harbor, which allows taxpayers that meet certain criteria to treat individuals as independent contractors if they are following a longstanding, recognized practice. Federal legislators also sought to expand the Fair Labor Standards Act to cover “non-employees” who perform labor or services for businesses, even if said non-employees are properly classified as independent contractors; require taxpayers to provide written notice to workers based upon their classification as either an employee or a non-employee; and impose penalties and fines for violations of the notice requirement or for misclassifications. Some states have launched initiatives to increase tax revenues from items such as unemployment, workers’ compensation and income taxes, and the reclassification of independent contractors as employees could help states increase these revenues. If the independent contractor drivers that provide services to XPO are determined to be our employees, we would incur additional exposure under some or all of the following: federal and


 
 
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state tax, workers’ compensation, unemployment benefits, and labor, employment and tort laws, including for prior periods, as well as potential liability for employee benefits and tax withholdings.
Environmental Regulations. Our transportation and logistics facilities and operations and our independent contractors are subject to various environmental laws and regulations dealing with the hauling, handling and disposal of hazardous materials, emissions from vehicles, engine-idling, fuel tanks and related fuel spillage and seepage, discharge and retention of storm water, and other environmental matters that involve inherent environmental risks. Similar laws and regulations may apply in many of the foreign jurisdictions in which we operate. We may be responsible for the cleanup of any spill or other incident involving hazardous materials caused by our business. In the past, we have been responsible for the cost to clean up diesel fuel spills caused by traffic accidents or other events, and none of these incidents materially affected our business or operations. We generally transport only hazardous materials rated as low-to-medium-risk, and only a small percentage of our total loads contain hazardous materials.
We believe that our operations are in substantial compliance with current laws and regulations and we do not know of any existing environmental condition that reasonably would be expected to have a material adverse effect on our business or operating results. A number of our logistics sites are ISO14001-certified to high standards for environmental management, and we have implemented numerous programs to manage environmental risks and maintain compliances. Future changes in environmental regulations or liabilities from newly discovered environmental conditions or violations (and any associated fines and penalties) could have a material adverse effect on our business, competitive position, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows. U.S. federal and state governments, as well as governments in certain foreign jurisdictions where we operate, have also proposed environmental legislation that could, among other things, potentially limit carbon, exhaust and greenhouse gas emissions. If enacted, such legislation could result in higher costs for new tractors and trailers, reduced productivity and efficiency, and increased operating expenses, all of which could adversely affect our results of operations.
Risk Management and Insurance
We maintain insurance for commercial automobile liability, truckers’ commercial automobile liability, commercial general liability, cargo/warehouse legal liability, workers’ compensation and employers’ liability, and umbrella and excess umbrella liability, with coverage limits, deductibles and self-insured retention levels that we believe are reasonable given the varying historical frequency, severity and timing of claims. Certain actuarial assumptions and managerial judgments are made for insurance reserves and are subject to a degree of variability.
Seasonality
Our revenue and profitability are typically lower for the first quarter of the calendar year relative to other quarters. We believe this is due in part to the post-holiday reduction in demand experienced by many of our customers, which leads to more available capacity and less demand for expedited and premium shipping services. In addition, the productivity of our tractors and trailers, independent contractors and transportation providers generally decreases during the winter season because inclement weather impedes operations. In contrast, our logistics network benefits from strong positioning in the e-commerce sector, where demand is characterized by strong seasonal surges in activity; the fourth quarter peak is typically the most dramatic, when holiday orders are placed online. It is not possible to reliably predict whether our historical revenue and profitability trends will continue to occur in future periods.
Employees
As of December 31, 2019, we have approximately 100,000 full-time and part-time employees. Our employee base is one of our most critical resources, and we view the recruitment, training and retention of qualified employees as being essential to our ongoing success. We believe that we have good relations with our employees, with strong programs in place for communication and professional development.


 
 
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Information about our Executive Officers
The following information relates to each of our executive officers:
Name
 
Age
 
Position
Bradley S. Jacobs
 
63
 
Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer
Troy A. Cooper
 
50
 
President
Sarah J.S. Glickman
 
50
 
Acting Chief Financial Officer
Mario A. Harik
 
39
 
Chief Information Officer
Kurt M. Rogers
 
48
 
Chief Legal Officer
Bradley S. Jacobs has served as XPO’s chairman of the board of directors and chief executive officer since September 2011. He is also the managing director of Jacobs Private Equity, LLC, which is XPO’s second largest stockholder. Mr. Jacobs has led two other public companies prior to XPO: United Rentals, Inc., which he founded in 1997, and United Waste Systems, Inc., which he founded in 1989. Mr. Jacobs served as chairman of United Rentals from 1997 to 2007, and as chief executive officer from 1997 to 2003. He served as chairman and chief executive officer of United Waste Systems from 1989 to 1997.
Troy A. Cooper has served as XPO’s president since April 2018, after formerly serving as XPO’s chief operating officer from 2014 to 2018, and as Transportation segment leader. From September 2015 to September 2017, he also served as chief executive officer and chairman of XPO Logistics Europe. Mr. Cooper joined XPO in September 2011 as vice president of finance. Prior to XPO, Mr. Cooper served as vice president and group controller with United Rentals, Inc., where he was responsible for field finance functions and helped to integrate over 200 acquisitions in the U.S., Canada and Mexico. Earlier, he held controller positions with United Waste Systems, Inc. and OSI Specialties, Inc. (formerly a division of Union Carbide, Inc.). He began his career in public accounting with Arthur Andersen and Co. and has a degree in accounting from Marietta College.
Sarah J.S. Glickman has served as XPO’s acting chief financial officer since August 2018, after joining XPO in June 2018 as senior vice president, corporate finance. Prior to XPO, Ms. Glickman served as chief financial officer of business services for Novartis from January 2017 to May 2018, and held executive roles with Honeywell International from March 2006 to November 2016 and, prior to Honeywell, Bristol-Myers Squibb. During her 11 years with Honeywell, she served as chief financial officer of the fluorine products business, and as head of internal audit and director of finance operations. With Bristol-Myers Squibb, she had senior responsibility for corporate controllership and accounting, financial controls and compliance. Ms. Glickman began her career at PricewaterhouseCoopers. She is a certified public accountant and a Chartered Accountant with a degree in economics from the University of York (UK).
Mario A. Harik has served as XPO’s chief information officer since November 2011. Mr. Harik has built comprehensive IT organizations, overseen the implementation of extensive proprietary platforms, and consulted to Fortune 100 companies. His prior positions include chief information officer and senior vice president of research and development with Oakleaf Waste Management; chief technology officer with Tallan, Inc.; co-founder of G3 Analyst, where he served as chief architect of web and voice applications; and architect and consultant with Adea Solutions. Mr. Harik holds a master’s degree in engineering, information technology from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and a degree in engineering, computer and communications from the American University of Beirut, Lebanon.
Kurt M. Rogers has served as XPO’s chief legal officer since February 2020. Mr. Rogers joined XPO from Stericycle, Inc., a global leader in medical waste management, where he served as executive vice president and general counsel from 2017 to 2020. He was previously chief legal officer of cloud communications leader Vonage Holdings Corp. for seven years. At Stericycle and Vonage, he led the negotiation and execution of numerous strategic initiatives. Earlier, he was a partner at Bingham McCutchen LLP and at Latham & Watkins LLP, specializing in intellectual property and litigation. He received his juris doctorate degree from Cornell Law School and his bachelor’s degree from Cornell University.


 
 
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Available Information
Our corporate website is www.xpo.com. On this website, you can access, free of charge, our reports on Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K, as well as specialized disclosure reports on Form SD, Proxy Statements on Schedule 14A and amendments to these materials. Materials are available online as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically submit them to the SEC. You can also access materials regarding our corporate governance policies and practices, including our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Code of Business Ethics and the charters relating to the committees of our board of directors. You also may request a printed copy of these materials without charge by writing to: Investor Relations, XPO Logistics, Inc., Five American Lane, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831.
ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
The following are important factors that could affect our financial performance and could cause actual results for future periods to differ materially from our anticipated results or other expectations, including those expressed in any forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K or our other filings with the SEC or in oral presentations such as telephone conferences and webcasts open to the public. You should carefully consider the following factors in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Item 7 and our Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes in Item 8.
Economic recessions and other factors that reduce freight volumes, both in North America and Europe, could have a material adverse impact on our business.
The transportation industry in North America and Europe historically has experienced cyclical fluctuations in financial results due to economic recessions, downturns in the business cycles of our customers, increases in the prices charged by third-party carriers, interest rate fluctuations, changes in international trade policies and other U.S. and global economic factors beyond our control. During economic downturns, a reduction in overall demand for transportation services will likely reduce demand for our services and exert downward pressures on our rates and margins. In addition, in periods of strong economic growth, overall demand may exceed the available supply of transportation resources, resulting in increased network congestion and operating inefficiencies. Additional changes in international trade policies and relations could significantly reduce the volume of goods transported globally and adversely affect our business and results of operations. These factors subject our business to various risks that may have a material impact on our operating results and future prospects. These risks may include the following:
A reduction in overall freight volume reduces our opportunities for growth. In addition, if a downturn in our customers’ business cycles causes a reduction in the volume of freight shipped by those customers, our operating results could be adversely affected;
Some of our customers may experience financial distress, file for bankruptcy protection, go out of business, or suffer disruptions in their business and may be unable to pay us. In addition, some customers may not pay us as quickly as they have in the past, causing our working capital needs to increase;
The U.S. government has made significant changes in U.S. trade policy and has taken certain actions that have negatively impacted U.S. trade, including imposing tariffs on certain goods imported into the U.S. To date, several governments, including the EU, have imposed tariffs on certain goods imported from the U.S. These actions contributed to weakness in the global economy that could adversely affect our results of operations, and such weakness could continue in 2020. Any further changes in U.S. or international trade policy could trigger additional retaliatory actions by affected countries, resulting in “trade wars” and further increased costs for goods transported globally, which may reduce customer demand for these products if the parties having to pay those tariffs increase their prices, or in trading partners limiting their trade with countries that impose anti-trade measures. Such conditions could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as on the price of our common stock.
A significant number of our transportation providers may go out of business and we may be unable to secure sufficient equipment capacity or services to meet our commitments to our customers; and
We may not be able to appropriately adjust our expenses to rapid changes in market demand. In order to maintain high variability in our business model, it is necessary to adjust staffing levels when market demand changes. In periods of rapid change, it is more difficult to match our staffing levels to our business


 
 
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needs. In addition, we have other expenses that are primarily variable but are fixed for a period of time, as well as certain significant fixed expenses; we may be unable to adequately adjust these expenses to match a rapid change in demand.
We operate in a highly competitive industry and, if we are unable to adequately address factors that may adversely affect our revenue and costs, our business could suffer.
Competition in the transportation services industry is intense. Increased competition may lead to a reduction in revenues, reduced profit margins, or a loss of market share, any one of which could harm our business. There are many factors that could impair our profitability, including the following:
Competition from other transportation services companies, some of which offer different services or have a broader coverage network, more fully developed information technology systems and greater capital resources than we do;
A reduction in the rates charged by our competitors to gain business, especially during times of declining economic growth, which may limit our ability to maintain or increase our rates, maintain our operating margins or achieve significant growth in our business;
Shippers soliciting bids from multiple transportation providers for their shipping needs, which may result in the depression of freight rates or loss of business to competitors;
The establishment by our competitors of cooperative relationships to increase their ability to address shipper needs;
Decisions by our current or prospective customers to develop or expand internal capabilities for some of the services we provide; and
The development of new technologies or business models that could result in our disintermediation in certain services we provide.
Our profitability may be materially adversely impacted if our investments in equipment, service centers and warehouses do not match customer demand for these resources or if there is a decline in the availability of funding sources for these investments.
Our LTL and full truckload operations require significant investments in equipment and freight service centers. The amount and timing of our capital investments depend on various factors, including anticipated freight volume levels and the price and availability of appropriate property for service centers and newly manufactured tractors. If our anticipated requirements for service centers or fleet differ materially from actual usage, our capital-intensive operations, specifically LTL and full truckload, may have more or less capacity than is optimal.
Our contract logistics operations can require a significant commitment of capital in the form of shelving, racking and other warehousing systems that may be required to implement warehouse-management services for our customers. To the extent that a customer defaults on its obligations under its agreement with us, we could be forced to take a significant loss on the unrecovered portion of this capital cost.
Our investments in equipment and service centers depend on our ability to generate cash flow from operations and our access to credit, debt and equity capital markets. A decline in the availability of these funding sources could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Our exploration of strategic alternatives is subject to various risks and uncertainties, may not result in any completed transactions and will involve significant time and expense, which could disrupt or adversely affect our business.
On January 15, 2020, we announced that our board of directors had authorized a review of strategic alternatives, including the possible sale or spin-off of one or more of our business units. Whether or not any such transaction or transactions are completed, our business may face significant risks, including, without limitation:
The diversion of management’s attention from operating our ongoing businesses and the overall impact on our businesses because of management’s attention to the review of strategic alternatives;


 
 
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Potential difficulty in maintaining employee morale and retaining key management and other employees;
Potential difficulty in separating assets related to such businesses from the businesses we retain;
The need to obtain regulatory approvals and other third-party consents, which could potentially disrupt customer and supplier relationships;
Foreseen and unforeseen dis-synergy costs, costs of restructuring transactions (including taxes) and other significant costs and expenses; and
Potential negative reactions from the financial markets if we do not complete one or more transactions.
Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and/or the price of our common stock.
If one or more business units is sold or spun off, we will be a smaller, less diversified company than we are today.
A sale or spin-off of one or more of our business units will result in us being a smaller, less diversified company with a more concentrated area of focus. Following a potential sale or spin-off, we will be reliant on our remaining business units. As a result, we may become more vulnerable to changing market conditions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The diversification of our revenues, costs and cash flows will diminish as a result of a sale or spin-off, such that our results of operations, cash flows, working capital, effective tax rate and financing requirements may be subject to increased volatility and our ability to fund capital expenditures, investments and service our debt may be diminished. We may also incur ongoing costs and retain certain liabilities that were previously allocated to entities that were sold or spun off. Those costs may exceed our estimates or could diminish the benefits we expect to realize.
Our past acquisitions, as well as any acquisitions that we may complete in the future, may be unsuccessful or result in other risks or developments that adversely affect our financial condition and results.
While we intend for our acquisitions to improve our competitiveness and profitability, we cannot be certain that our past or future acquisitions will be accretive to earnings or otherwise meet our operational or strategic expectations. Special risks, including accounting, regulatory, compliance, information technology or human resources issues, may arise in connection with, or as a result of, the acquisition of an existing company, including the assumption of unanticipated liabilities and contingencies, difficulties in integrating acquired businesses, possible management distractions, or the inability of the acquired business to achieve the levels of revenue, profit, productivity or synergies we anticipate or otherwise perform as we expect on the timeline contemplated. We are unable to predict all of the risks that could arise as a result of our acquisitions.
If the performance of our reporting segments or an acquired business varies from our projections or assumptions, or if estimates about the future profitability of our reporting segments or an acquired business change, our revenues, earnings or other aspects of our financial condition could be adversely affected. We may also experience difficulties in connection with integrating any acquired companies into our existing businesses and operations, including our existing infrastructure and information technology systems. The infrastructure and information technology systems of acquired companies could present issues that we were unable to identify prior to the acquisition and that could adversely affect our financial condition and results; we have experienced challenges of this nature relating to the infrastructure and systems of certain past companies that we acquired. Also, we may not realize all of the synergies we anticipate from past and potential future acquisitions. Among the synergies that we currently expect to realize are cross-selling opportunities to our existing customers, network synergies and other operational synergies. Any of these events could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We may not successfully manage our growth.
We have grown rapidly and substantially over prior years, including by expanding our internal resources, making acquisitions and entering into new markets, and we intend to continue to focus on rapid growth, including organic growth and additional acquisitions. We may experience difficulties and higher-than-expected expenses in executing this strategy as a result of unfamiliarity with new markets, changes in revenue and business models, entry into new geographic areas and increased pressure on our existing infrastructure and information technology systems.


 
 
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Our growth will place a significant strain on our management, operational, financial and information technology resources. We will need to continually improve existing procedures and controls, as well as implement new transaction processing, operational and financial systems, and procedures and controls to expand, train and manage our employee base. Our working capital needs will continue to increase as our operations grow. Failure to manage our growth effectively, or obtain necessary working capital, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
Our business will be seriously harmed if we fail to develop, implement, maintain, upgrade, enhance, protect and integrate our information technology systems, including those systems of any businesses that we acquire.
We rely heavily on our information technology systems in managing our business; they are a key component of our customer-facing services and internal growth strategy. In general, we expect our customers to continue to demand more sophisticated, fully integrated technology from their transportation and logistics providers. To keep pace with changing technologies and customer demands, we must correctly address market trends and enhance the features and functionality of our proprietary technology platform in response to these trends. This process of continuous enhancement may lead to significant ongoing software development costs, which will continue to increase if we pursue new acquisitions of companies and their current systems. In addition, we may fail to accurately determine the needs of our customers or trends in the transportation and logistics industries, or we may fail to respond appropriately by implementing functionality for our technology platform in a timely or cost-effective manner. Any such failures could result in decreased demand for our services and a corresponding decrease in our revenues.
We must ensure that our information technology systems remain competitive. If our information technology systems are unable to manage high volumes with reliability, accuracy and speed as we grow, or if such systems are not suited to manage the various services we offer, our service levels and operating efficiency could decline. In addition, if we fail to hire and retain qualified personnel to implement, protect and maintain our information technology systems, or if we fail to enhance our systems to meet our customers’ needs, our results of operations could be seriously harmed. This could result in a loss of customers or a decline in the volume of freight we receive from customers.
We are developing proprietary information technology for both of our business segments. Our technology may not be successful or may not achieve the desired results and we may require additional training or different personnel to successfully implement this technology. Our technology development process may be subject to cost overruns or delays in obtaining the expected results, which may result in disruptions to our operations.
A failure of our information technology infrastructure or a breach of our information security systems, networks or processes may materially adversely affect our business.
The efficient operation of our business depends on our information technology systems. We rely on our information technology systems to effectively manage our sales and marketing, financial, legal and compliance functions, engineering and product development tasks, research and development data, communications, logistics order entry and fulfillment and other business processes. We also rely on third parties and virtualized infrastructure to operate our information technology systems. Despite significant testing for risk management, external and internal risks, such as malware, insecure coding, “Acts of God,” data leakage and human error, pose a direct threat to the stability or effectiveness of our information technology systems and operations. The failure of our information technology systems to perform as we anticipate has in the past, and could in the future, adversely affect our business through transaction errors, billing and invoicing errors, internal recordkeeping and reporting errors, processing inefficiencies and loss of sales, receivables collection or customers. Any such failure could result in harm to our reputation and have an ongoing adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition, including after the underlying failures have been remedied.
We may also be subject to cybersecurity attacks and other intentional hacking. Any failure to identify and address such defects or errors or prevent a cyber-attack could result in service interruptions, operational difficulties, loss of revenues or market share, liability to our customers or others, the diversion of corporate resources, injury to our reputation or increased service and maintenance costs. Addressing such issues could prove to be impossible or very costly and responding to the resulting claims or liability could similarly involve substantial cost. In addition, recently, regulatory and enforcement focus on data protection has heightened in the U.S. and abroad, particularly in the EU, and failure to comply with applicable U.S. or foreign data protection regulations or other data protection


 
 
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standards may expose us to litigation, fines, sanctions or other penalties, which could harm our business, its reputation, results of operations and financial condition.
Our substantial indebtedness could adversely affect our financial condition.
We have substantial outstanding indebtedness, which could:
Negatively affect our ability to pay principal and interest on our debt or dividends on our Series A Preferred Stock;
Increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
Limit our ability to fund future capital expenditures and working capital, to engage in future acquisitions or development activities, or to otherwise realize the value of our assets and opportunities fully because of the need to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments of interest and principal or to comply with any restrictive terms of our debt;
Limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;
Impair our ability to obtain additional financing or to refinance our indebtedness in the future; and
Place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that may have proportionately less debt.
Our inability to generate sufficient cash flows to satisfy our debt obligations, or to refinance our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all, could materially and adversely affect our financial position and results of operations. Further, failure to comply with the covenants under our indebtedness may have a material adverse impact on our operations. If we fail to comply with any of the covenants under our indebtedness, and are unable to obtain a waiver or amendment, such failure may result in an event of default under our indebtedness. We may not have sufficient liquidity to repay or refinance our indebtedness if such indebtedness were accelerated upon an event of default.
Under the terms of our outstanding indebtedness, we may not be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future, which could further exacerbate the risks described above.
The execution of our strategy could depend on our ability to raise capital in the future, and our inability to do so could prevent us from achieving our growth objectives.
We may in the future be required to raise capital through public or private financing or other arrangements in order to pursue our growth strategy or operate our businesses. Such financing may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all, and our failure to raise capital when needed could harm our business or our ability to execute our strategy. Further debt financing may involve restrictive covenants and could reduce our profitability. If we cannot raise funds on acceptable terms, we may not be able to grow our business or respond to competitive pressures.
Failure to successfully implement our cost and revenue initiatives could cause our future financial results to suffer.
We are implementing various cost and revenue initiatives to further improve our profitability. We estimate that 40% of the potential opportunity is related to revenue initiatives: advanced pricing analytics and revenue management tools, our digital freight platform, our shared distribution network and cross-selling to strategic accounts in Europe. The other 60% is related to cost initiatives: LTL process improvements, contract logistics automation, workforce productivity, European margin expansion, global procurement and further back-office optimization. If we are not able to successfully implement these cost and revenue initiatives, our future financial results may suffer.
We depend on third parties in the operation of our business.
In our global forwarding, last mile and freight brokerage operations, we do not own or control the transportation assets that deliver our customers’ freight, and we do not employ the people directly involved in delivering this freight. In addition, in our freight brokerage businesses (particularly our over-the-road expedite operations and intermodal drayage operations) and in our last mile business, we engage independent contractors who own and


 
 
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operate their own equipment. Accordingly, we are dependent on third parties to provide truck, rail, ocean, air and other transportation services and to report certain events to us, including delivery information and cargo claims. This reliance on third parties could cause delays in reporting certain events, impacting our ability to recognize revenue and claims in a timely manner.
Our inability to maintain positive relationships with independent transportation providers could significantly limit our ability to serve our customers on competitive terms. If we are unable to secure sufficient equipment or other transportation services to meet our commitments to our customers or provide our services on competitive terms, our operating results could be materially and adversely affected, and our customers could shift their business to our competitors temporarily or permanently. Our ability to secure sufficient equipment or other transportation services to meet our commitments to customers or provide our services on competitive terms is subject to inherent risks, many of which are beyond our control, including:
Equipment shortages in the transportation industry, particularly among contracted truckload carriers and railroads;
Interruptions or stoppages in transportation services as a result of labor disputes, seaport strikes, network congestion, weather-related issues, “Acts of God” or acts of terrorism;
Changes in regulations impacting transportation;
Increases in operating expenses for carriers, such as fuel costs, insurance premiums and licensing expenses, that result in a reduction in available carriers; and
Changes in transportation rates.
Increases in driver compensation and difficulties with attracting and retaining drivers could adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
Our LTL services in North America and Europe and our full truckload services in Europe are conducted primarily with employee drivers. Our industry has periodically experienced and may, in future, experience intense competition for qualified drivers in the transportation industry due to a shortage of drivers. The availability of qualified drivers may be affected from time to time by changing workforce demographics, competition from other transportation companies and industries for employees, the availability and affordability of driver training schools, changing industry regulations, and the demand for drivers in the labor market. If the current industry-wide shortage of qualified drivers continues, our global LTL operations and our European truckload operation will likely experience difficulty in attracting and retaining enough qualified drivers to fully satisfy customer demand. During periods of increased competition in the labor market for drivers, our LTL and full truckload operations may be required to increase driver compensation and benefits in the future or face difficulty meeting customer demand, all of which could adversely affect our profitability. Additionally, a shortage of drivers could result in the underutilization of our truck fleet, lost revenue, increased costs for purchased transportation or increased costs for driver recruitment.
Increases in independent contractor driver rates or other necessities in attracting and retaining qualified independent contractor drivers could adversely affect our profitability and ability to replenish or grow our independent contractor driver networks.
Our freight brokerage and intermodal operations rely on fleets of vehicles that are owned and operated by independent contractors. Our last mile service is also performed by independent contract carriers who supply their own vehicles, drivers and helpers. These independent contractors are responsible for maintaining and operating their own equipment and paying their own fuel, insurance, licenses and other operating costs. Turnover and bankruptcy among independent contractor drivers often limit the pool of qualified independent contractor drivers and increase competition for their services. In addition, regulations such as the FMCSA Compliance Safety Accountability program may further reduce the pool of qualified independent contractor drivers. Thus, our continued reliance on independent contractor drivers could limit our ability to grow our ground transportation networks.
We are currently experiencing difficulty in attracting and retaining sufficient numbers of qualified independent contractor drivers, and we expect to continue to experience this difficulty from time to time in the future. Additionally, our agreements with independent contractor drivers are terminable by either party without penalty and upon short notice. Consequently, we need to regularly recruit new, qualified independent contractor drivers to


 
 
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replace those who have left our networks. If we are unable to retain our existing independent contractor drivers or recruit new independent contractor drivers, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.
The rates we offer our independent contractor drivers are subject to market conditions and we may find it necessary to continue to increase independent contractor drivers’ rates in future periods. If we are unable to continue to attract and retain a sufficient number of independent contractor drivers, we could be required to increase our mileage rates and accessorial pay or operate with fewer trucks and face difficulty meeting shipper demands, all of which would adversely affect our profitability and scale, or our ability to pursue our growth strategy.
Our business may be materially adversely affected by labor disputes.
Our business in the past has been, and in the future could be, adversely affected by strikes and labor negotiations at seaports, labor disputes between railroads and their union employees, or by a work stoppage at one or more railroads or local trucking companies servicing rail or port terminals, including work disruptions involving owner-operators under contract with our local trucking operations. Port shutdowns and similar disruptions to major points in national or international transportation networks, most of which are beyond our control, could result in terminal embargoes, disrupt equipment and freight flows, depress volumes and revenues, increase costs and have other negative effects on our operations and financial results.
Labor disputes involving our customers could affect our operations. If our customers experience plant slowdowns or closures because they are unable to negotiate labor contracts, our revenue and profitability could be negatively impacted. In particular, our Logistics segment derives a substantial portion of its revenue from the operation and management of facilities that are often located in close proximity to a customer’s manufacturing plant and are integrated into the customer’s production line process. If any of our customers are affected by labor disputes and consequently cease or significantly modify their operations at a plant served by our Logistics segment, we may experience significant revenue loss and shutdown costs, including costs related to early termination of leases, causing our business to suffer.
XPO Logistics Europe’s business activities require a large amount of labor, which represents one of its most significant costs. It is essential that we maintain good relations with employees, trade unions and other staff representative institutions. A deteriorating economic environment may result in tensions in industrial relations, which may lead to industrial action within our European operations; this could have a direct impact on our business operations. Generally, any deterioration in industrial relations in our European operations, such as general strike activities or other material labor disputes, could have an adverse effect on our revenues, earnings, financial position and outlook.
Efforts by labor organizations to organize employees at certain locations in North America, if successful, may result in increased costs and decreased efficiencies at those locations.
Since 2014, in the U.S., the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (“Teamsters”) has attempted to organize employees at several of our LTL and logistics locations, and the International Association of Machinists (“Machinists”) has attempted to organize a small number of mechanics at three LTL maintenance shops. In 2018, the United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (“UAW”) attempted to organize warehouse workers at one logistics location. The majority of our employees involved in these organizing efforts rejected union representation. As of January 1, 2020, our employees had voted in favor of union representation in 10 of the 25 union elections held since 2014, with approximately 545 employees voting in favor and 602 employees voting against representation. In October 2017, a majority of employees at our North Haven, Connecticut logistics location, which had previously voted for Teamsters representation, petitioned us to withdraw recognition of the Teamsters as the employees’ representative and we withdrew this recognition. Similarly, in 2019, a majority of employees at our LTL locations in Laredo, Texas and Aurora, Illinois, voted to decertify the Teamsters as the employees’ representative. In addition, we continue to challenge the results of one election held in 2014 for an LTL location in Los Angeles, California pursuant to a petition that had been filed by the Teamsters, while seven locations where employees had voted in favor of union representation are in negotiations for an initial collective bargaining agreement. Since 2014, the Teamsters have withdrawn six petitions seeking elections on behalf of approximately 230 LTL employees prior to the election being held, and the Machinists withdrew one petition for an LTL election on behalf of six individuals. We cannot predict with certainty whether further organizing efforts may result in the unionization of any additional locations in the U.S. If successful, these efforts may result in increased costs and


 
 
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decreased efficiencies at the specific locations where representation is elected. We do not expect the impact, if any, to extend to our larger organization or the services provided to our customer base.
Certain of our businesses rely on owner-operators and contract carriers to conduct their operations, and the status of these parties as independent contractors, rather than employees, is being challenged.
We are involved in numerous lawsuits, including putative class action lawsuits, multi-plaintiff and individual lawsuits, and state tax and other administrative proceedings that claim that our contract carriers or owner-operators or their drivers should be treated as our employees, rather than independent contractors, or that certain of our drivers were not paid for all compensable time or were not provided with required meal or rest breaks. These lawsuits and proceedings may seek substantial monetary damages (including claims for unpaid wages, overtime, failure to provide meal and rest periods, unreimbursed business expenses and other items), injunctive relief, or both. In addition, we incur certain costs, including legal fees, in defending the status of these parties as independent contractors.
While we believe that our contract carriers and owner-operators and their drivers are properly classified as independent contractors rather than as employees, adverse decisions have been rendered recently in certain cases pending against us, including with respect to determinations that certain of our contract carriers and owner-operators are improperly classified. Such adverse final outcomes in these matters could, among other things, entitle certain of our contract carriers and owner-operators and their drivers to reimbursement with respect to certain expenses and to the benefit of wage-and-hour laws and result in employment and withholding tax and benefit liability for us, and could result in changes to the independent contractor status of our contract carriers and owner-operators. Changes to state laws governing the definition of independent contractors could also impact the status of our contract carriers and owner-operators. Adverse final outcomes in these matters or changes to state laws could cause us to change our business model, which could have a material adverse effect on our business strategies, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. These claims involve potentially significant classes that could involve thousands of claimants and, accordingly, significant potential damages and litigation costs, and could lead others to bring similar claims.
The results of these matters cannot be predicted with certainty and an unfavorable resolution of one or more of these matters could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Our overseas operations are subject to various operational and financial risks that could adversely affect our business.
The services we provide outside the U.S. are subject to risks resulting from changes in tariffs, trade restrictions, trade agreements, tax policies, difficulties in managing or overseeing foreign operations and agents, different liability standards, issues related to compliance with anti-corruption laws, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Bribery Act, data protection, trade compliance, and intellectual property laws of countries that do not protect our rights relating to our intellectual property, including our proprietary information systems, to the same extent as do U.S. laws. The occurrence or consequences of any of these factors may restrict our ability to operate in the affected region or decrease the profitability of our operations in that region. In addition, as we expand our business in foreign countries, we will be exposed to increased risk of loss from foreign currency fluctuations and exchange controls.
Our European business heavily relies on subcontracting and we use a large number of temporary employees in these operations. Any failure to properly manage our subcontractors or temporary employees in Europe could have a material adverse impact on our revenues, earnings, financial position and outlook.
Subcontracting plays a key role in our European business, which we operate through our majority-owned subsidiary, XPO Logistics Europe SA. As of December 31, 2019, we subcontracted approximately 53% of our Transportation segment operations in the region. As a result, we are exposed to various risks related to managing our subcontractors, such as the risk that they do not fulfill their assignments in a satisfactory manner or within the specified deadlines. Such failures could compromise our ability to fulfill our commitments to our customers, comply with applicable regulations or otherwise meet our customers’ expectations. In some situations, the poor execution of services by our subcontractors could result in a customer terminating a contract. Such failures by our subcontractors could harm our reputation and ability to win new business and could lead to our being liable for contractual


 
 
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damages. Furthermore, in the event of a failure by our subcontractors to fulfill their assignments in a satisfactory manner, we could be required to perform unplanned work or additional services in line with the contracted service, without receiving any additional compensation. Lastly, some of our subcontractors in Europe may not be insured or may not have sufficient resources available to handle any claims from customers resulting from potential damage and losses relating to their performance of services on our behalf. As a result, any non-compliance by our subcontractors with their contractual or legal obligations may have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
XPO Logistics Europe also makes significant use of temporary staff. We cannot guarantee that temporary employees are as well-trained as our other employees. Specifically, we may be exposed to the risk that temporary employees may not perform their assignments in a satisfactory manner or may not comply with our safety rules in an appropriate manner, whether as a result of their lack of experience or otherwise. If such risks materialize, they could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
We are involved in multiple lawsuits and are subject to various claims that could result in significant expenditures and impact our operations.
The nature of our business exposes us to the potential for various types of claims and litigation. In addition to the matters described in the risk factor “Certain of our businesses rely on owner-operators and contract carriers to conduct their operations, and the status of these parties as independent contractors, rather than employees, is being challenged,” we are subject to claims and litigation related to labor and employment, personal injury, vehicular accidents, cargo and other property damage, business practices, environmental liability and other matters, including with respect to claims asserted under various other theories of agency or employer liability. Claims against us may exceed the amount of insurance coverage that we have or may not be covered by insurance at all. Businesses that we acquire also increase our exposure to litigation. Material increases in the frequency or severity of vehicular accidents, liability claims or workers’ compensation claims, or the unfavorable resolution of claims, or our failure to recover, in full or in part, under indemnity provisions with transportation providers, could materially and adversely affect our operating results. Our involvement in the transportation of certain goods, including but not limited to hazardous materials, could also increase our exposure in the event that we or one of our contracted carriers is involved in an accident resulting in injury or contamination. In addition, significant increases in insurance costs or the inability to purchase insurance as a result of these claims could reduce our profitability.
An increase in the number or severity of self-insured claims or an increase in insurance premiums could have an adverse effect on us.
We use a combination of self-insurance programs and large-deductible purchased insurance to provide for the costs of employee medical, vehicular collision and accident, cargo and workers’ compensation claims. Our estimated liability for self-retained insurance claims reflects certain actuarial assumptions and judgments, which are subject to a degree of variability. We reserve for anticipated losses and expenses and periodically evaluate and adjust our claims reserves to reflect our experience. Estimating the number and severity of claims, as well as related judgment or settlement amounts, is inherently difficult. This inherent difficulty, along with legal expenses, incurred but not reported claims, and other uncertainties can cause unfavorable differences between actual self-insurance costs and our reserve estimates. Accordingly, our ultimate results may differ from our estimates, which could result in losses over our reserved amounts. We periodically evaluate our level of insurance coverage and adjust insurance levels based on targeted risk tolerance and premium expense. An increase in the number or severity of self-insured claims or an increase in insurance premiums could have an adverse effect on us, while higher self-insured retention levels may increase the impact of loss occurrences on our results of operations.
In addition, the cost of providing benefits under our medical plans is dependent on a variety of factors, including governmental laws and regulations, healthcare cost trends, claims experience and healthcare decisions by plan participants. As a result, we are unable to predict how the cost of providing benefits under medical plans will affect our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.


 
 
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We are currently subject to securities class action litigation and may be subject to similar litigation in the future. Such matters can be expensive, time-consuming and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We are currently subject to securities class action litigation alleging violations of securities laws, which could harm our business and require us to incur significant costs. In December 2018, two purported class action lawsuits were filed against us and certain of our officers; these lawsuits alleged that we made false and misleading statements, purported to assert claims for violations of federal securities laws and sought unspecified compensatory damages and other relief. One class action lawsuit has since been voluntarily dismissed. While we believe that we have a number of valid defenses to the claims described above and intend to vigorously defend ourselves in the remaining class action lawsuit, the matter is in the early stages of litigation and no assessment can be made as to the likely outcome of the matter or whether it will be material to us. Also, we may be subject to additional proceedings of this type in the future, which could require significant attention from management or result in significant legal expenses, settlement costs or damage awards, any of which could have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
We are subject to risks associated with defined benefit plans for our current and former employees, which could have a material adverse effect on our earnings and financial position.
We maintain defined benefit pension plans and a postretirement medical plan. Our defined benefit pension plans include funded and unfunded plans in the U.S. and the U.K. A decline in interest rates or lower returns on funded plan assets may cause increases in the expense and funding requirements for these defined benefit pension plans and for our postretirement medical plan. Despite past amendments that froze our defined benefit pension plans to new participants and curtailed benefits, these pension plans remain subject to volatility associated with interest rates, inflation, returns on plan assets, other actuarial assumptions and statutory funding requirements. In addition to being subject to volatility associated with interest rates, our postretirement medical plan remains subject to volatility associated with actuarial assumptions and trends in healthcare costs. Any of the aforementioned factors could lead to a significant increase in the expense of these plans and a deterioration in the solvency of these plans, which could significantly increase our contribution requirements. As a result, we are unable to predict the effect on our financial statements associated with our defined benefit pension plans and our postretirement medical plan.
We may be adversely affected by interest rate changes because of our floating rate credit facilities.
The Second Amended and Restated Revolving Loan Credit Agreement, as amended (the “ABL Facility”), the senior secured term loan credit agreement, as amended (the “Term Loan Facility”), provide for an interest rate based on London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) or a Base Rate, as defined in the agreements, plus an applicable margin. Our European trade receivables securitization program (the “Receivables Securitization Program”) provides for an interest rate at lenders’ cost of funds plus an applicable margin. Our financial position may be affected by fluctuations in interest rates since the ABL Facility, Term Loan Facility and Receivables Securitization Program are subject to floating interest rates. Refer to Item 7A, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” for the impact on interest expense of a hypothetical 100 basis point increase in the interest rate. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors, including governmental monetary policies, domestic and international economic and political conditions and other factors beyond our control. A significant increase in interest rates could have an adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations. Additionally, the interest rates on some of our debt is tied to LIBOR. In July 2017, the head of the U.K.’s Financial Conduct Authority announced its intention to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. The uncertainty regarding the future of LIBOR, as well as the transition from LIBOR to another benchmark rate or rates could have adverse impacts on our outstanding debt that currently uses LIBOR as a benchmark rate, and ultimately, adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We are exposed to currency exchange rate fluctuations because a significant proportion of our assets, liabilities and earnings are denominated in foreign currencies.
We present our financial statements in U.S. dollars, but we have a significant proportion of our net assets and income in non-U.S. dollar currencies, primarily the euro and British pound sterling. Consequently, a depreciation of non-U.S. dollar currencies relative to the U.S. dollar could have an adverse impact on our financial results as further discussed in Item 7A, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk.”


 
 
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The economic uncertainties relating to eurozone monetary policies may cause the value of the euro to fluctuate against other currencies. Currency volatility contributes to variations in our sales of products and services in impacted jurisdictions. For example, in the event that one or more European countries were to replace the euro with another currency, our sales into such countries, or in Europe generally, would likely be adversely affected until stable exchange rates are established. Accordingly, fluctuations in currency exchange rates could adversely affect our business and financial condition in Europe and the business of the combined company.
The decision of the United Kingdom to withdraw from the European Union may have a negative effect on global economic conditions, financial markets and our operations.
In June 2016, a majority of voters in the U.K. voted in favor of the U.K.’s withdrawal from the EU (“Brexit”) in a national referendum. On January 31, 2020, the U.K. withdrew from the EU and entered into a transition period to, among other things, negotiate an agreement with the EU governing the future relationship between the EU and the U.K. The referendum and subsequent withdrawal of the U.K. from the EU has created significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the U.K. and the EU and will have uncertain impacts on our transportation and logistics operations in Europe. In 2019, we derived approximately 12% of our revenue from the U.K. and an aggregate 26% from the rest of the European countries where we operate. In addition, the implementation of Brexit has caused, and may continue to cause, uncertainty in the global markets.
The effects of Brexit on our transportation and logistics operations in Europe will depend on any agreements the U.K. ultimately reaches to retain access to EU markets either during the transitional period or more permanently. The laws and regulations that will apply to the U.K. domestic economy will depend, in large part, on the content of any agreements the U.K. is able to negotiate with the EU and current laws and regulations may either be replaced or replicated after withdrawal, including those governing manufacturing, labor, environmental, data protection/privacy, competition and other matters either applicable to the transportation and logistics industry directly or with potential impact on the demand for our services in the U.K. or in Europe more generally.
If the U.K. cannot reach an agreement with the EU, it will likely have an adverse impact on access to labor in the U.K. and trade between the U.K. and EU and may create further short-term currency volatility. In the absence of a future trade deal, the U.K.’s trade with the EU and the rest of the world would be subject to tariffs and duties set by the World Trade Organization, which could result in uncertain demand for our services in the U.K. and its trading partners. In addition, the movement of goods between the U.K. and the remaining member states of the EU will be subject to additional inspections and documentation checks, leading to possible delays at ports of entry and departure, which may have unexpected impacts on our ability to efficiently provide our transportation and logistics services. Moreover, currency volatility could drive a weaker U.K. pound which could result in a decrease in our reported consolidated financial results for the U.K., which are reported in US dollars.
Any adverse consequences of Brexit, such as a deterioration in the U.K.’s or the EU’s economic condition, currency exchange rates, bilateral trade agreements or regulatory trade environment, including the potential imposition of tariffs, could reduce demand for our services in the U.K. or the EU, negatively impact the value of our defined benefit pension plans in the U.K., or otherwise have a negative impact on our operations, financial condition and results of operations.
Sales or issuances of a substantial number of shares of our common stock may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
We may fund any future acquisitions or our capital requirements from time to time, in whole or part, through sales or issuances of our common stock or equity-based securities, subject to prevailing market conditions and our financing needs. Future equity financing will dilute the interests of our then-existing stockholders, and future sales or issuances of a substantial number of shares of our common stock or other equity-related securities may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
We do not own, and may not acquire, all of the outstanding shares of XPO Logistics Europe SA, the majority-owned subsidiary through which we conduct our European operations.
As of December 31, 2019, we owned 95.4% of the outstanding shares of XPO Logistics Europe SA, the majority-owned subsidiary through which we conduct our European operations. We may or may not acquire the remaining shares of XPO Logistics Europe, or we may choose to enact a “squeeze out” merger, which is permitted under


 
 
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French law when a holder owns more than 95% of outstanding shares. As long as we do not wholly own XPO Logistics Europe, we do not have access to all of its cash flow to service our debt, as we will receive a prorated portion of any dividend based on our ownership percentage. In addition, we will be subject to limitations on our ability to enter into transactions with XPO Logistics Europe that are not on arms-length terms, which could limit synergies that we could otherwise achieve between our North American and European operations. Moreover, XPO Logistics Europe would be forced to continue as a listed public company in France, thereby incurring certain recurring costs.
Volatility in fuel prices impacts our fuel surcharge revenue and may impact our profitability.
We are subject to risks associated with the availability and price of fuel, all of which are subject to political, economic and market factors that are outside of our control.
Fuel expense constitutes one of the greatest costs to our LTL and full truckload carrier operations, as well as to the independent contractor drivers and third-party transportation providers who transport freight arranged by our other operations. Accordingly, we may be adversely affected by the timing and degree of fuel price fluctuations. As is customary in our industry, most of our customer contracts include fuel surcharge programs or other cost-recovery mechanisms to mitigate the effect of any fuel price increases over base amounts established in the contract. However, these mechanisms may not fully capture an increase in fuel price, as there is a lag between payment for fuel and collection of the surcharge revenue. Furthermore, market pressures may limit our ability to assess fuel surcharges in the future. The extent to which we are able to recover increases in fuel costs may be impacted by the amount of empty or out-of-route truck miles or engine idling time.
Decreases in fuel prices reduce the cost of transportation services and accordingly, will reduce our revenues and may reduce margins for certain lines of business. Significant changes in the price or availability of fuel in future periods, or significant changes in our ability to mitigate fuel price increases through the use of fuel surcharges, could have a material adverse impact on our operations, fleet capacity and ability to generate both revenues and profits.
Extreme or unusual weather conditions whether due to climate change or otherwise, can disrupt our operations, impact freight volumes, and increase our costs, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business results.
Our business depends, in part, on predictable temperate weather patterns. Certain seasonal weather conditions and isolated weather events can disrupt our operations. We frequently incur costs related to snow and ice removal, towing and other maintenance activities during winter months. At least some of our operations are constantly at risk of extreme adverse weather conditions. Any unusual or prolonged adverse weather patterns in our areas of operations or markets, whether due to climate change or otherwise, can temporarily impact freight volumes and increase our costs.
Issues related to the intellectual property rights on which our business depends, whether related to our failure to enforce our own rights or infringement claims brought by others, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We use both internally developed and purchased technologies in conducting our business. Whether internally developed or purchased, it is possible that users of these technologies could be claimed to infringe upon or violate the intellectual property rights of third parties. In the event that a claim is made against us by a third party for the infringement of intellectual property rights, a settlement or adverse judgment against us could result in increased costs to license the technology or a legal prohibition against our using the technology. Thus, our failure to obtain, maintain or enforce our intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on a combination of intellectual property rights, including patents, copyrights, trademarks, domain names, trade secrets, intellectual property licenses and other contractual rights, to protect our intellectual property and technology. Any of our owned or licensed intellectual property rights could be challenged, invalidated, circumvented, infringed or misappropriated; our trade secrets and other confidential information could be disclosed in an unauthorized manner to third parties; or we may fail to secure the rights to intellectual property developed by our employees, contractors and others. Efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be time-consuming and costly, distract management’s attention and our resources, and ultimately be unsuccessful. Moreover, should we fail


 
 
27
 
 
 
 
 
 



to develop and properly manage future intellectual property, this could adversely affect our market positions and business opportunities.
We are subject to regulation, which could negatively impact our business.
Our operations are regulated and licensed by various governmental agencies in the U.S. and in foreign countries where we operate. These regulatory agencies have authority and oversight of domestic and international transportation services and related activities, licensure, motor carrier operations, safety and security and other matters. We must comply with various insurance and surety bond requirements to act in the capacities for which we are licensed. Our subsidiaries and independent contractors must also comply with applicable regulations and requirements of various agencies. Through our subsidiaries and operations, we hold various licenses required to carry out our domestic and international services. These licenses permit us to provide services as a motor carrier, property broker, indirect air carrier, OTI, NVOCC, freight forwarder, air freight forwarder, and ocean freight forwarder. In addition, we are subject to regulations and requirements promulgated by the DOT, FMCSA, DHS, CBP, TSA, FMC, IATA, Canada Border Services Agency and various other international, domestic, state and local agencies and port authorities.
Certain of our businesses engage in the transportation of hazardous materials, the movement, handling and accidental discharge of which are highly regulated. Our failure to maintain the required licenses, or to comply with applicable regulations, could have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations. See the “Regulation” section under Item 1 for more information.
Future laws and regulations may be more stringent and may require changes to our operating practices that influence the demand for our services or require us to incur significant additional costs. We are unable to predict the impact that recently enacted and future regulations may have on our business. In particular, it is difficult to predict which, and in what form, FMCSA regulations may be modified or enforced, and what impact these regulations may have on motor carrier operations or on the aggregate number of trucks that provide hauling capacity to XPO. If higher costs are incurred by us as a result of future changes in regulations, or by the independent contractors or third-party transportation providers who pass increased costs on to us, this could adversely affect our results of operations to the extent we are unable to obtain a corresponding increase in price from our customers.
Changes in income tax regulations for U.S. and multinational companies may increase our tax liability.
The U.S. Congress, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (“OECD”), the EU, and other government agencies in jurisdictions in which we and our affiliates do business have maintained a focus on the taxation of multinational companies. The OECD has recommended changes to numerous long-standing international tax principles through its base erosion and profit shifting (“BEPS”) project. These and other tax laws and related regulations changes, to the extent adopted, may increase tax uncertainty, result in higher compliance cost and adversely affect our provision for income taxes, results of operations and/or cash flow.
Failure to comply with trade compliance laws and regulations applicable to our operations may subject us to liability and result in mandatory or voluntary disclosures to government agencies of transactions or dealings involving sanctioned countries, entities or individuals.
As a result of our acquisition activities, we acquired companies with business operations outside the U.S., some of which were not previously subject to certain U.S. laws and regulations, including trade sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) of the U.S. Department of the Treasury. In the course of implementing our compliance processes with respect to the operations of these acquired companies, we have identified a number of transactions or dealings involving countries and entities that are subject to U.S. economic sanctions. As disclosed in our reports filed with the SEC, we filed initial voluntary disclosure of such matters with OFAC in August 2016. In August 2018, OFAC addressed these matters by responding with a cautionary letter to us. To our knowledge, OFAC is considering no further action in response to the voluntary disclosure filed by us in August 2016. We may, in the future, identify additional transactions or dealings involving sanctioned countries, entities or individuals. The transactions or dealings that we have identified to date, or other transactions or dealings that we may identify in the future, could result in negative consequences to us, including government investigations, penalties and reputational harm.


 
 
28
 
 
 
 
 
 



Our chairman and chief executive officer controls a large portion of our stock and has substantial control over us, which could limit other stockholders’ ability to influence the outcome of key transactions, including changes of control.
Under applicable SEC rules, our chairman and chief executive officer, Mr. Bradley S. Jacobs, beneficially owns approximately 18% of our outstanding common stock as of December 31, 2019. This concentration of share ownership may adversely affect the trading price for our common stock because investors may perceive disadvantages in owning stock in companies with concentrated stockholders. Our preferred stock votes together with our common stock on an “as-converted” basis on all matters, except as otherwise required by law, and separately as a class with respect to certain matters implicating the rights of holders of shares of the preferred stock. Accordingly, Mr. Jacobs can exert substantial influence over our management and affairs and matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and the approval of significant corporate transactions, such as mergers, consolidations or the sale of substantially all of our assets. Consequently, this concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control, including a merger, consolidation, or other business combination involving us, or discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control, even if that change of control would benefit our other stockholders. Additionally, significant fluctuations in the levels of ownership of our largest stockholders, including shares beneficially owned by Mr. Jacobs, could impact the volume of trading, liquidity and market price of our common stock.
ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
As of December 31, 2019, we operated approximately 1,504 locations, primarily in North America and Europe, including approximately 321 locations owned or leased by our customers. These facilities are located in all 48 contiguous U.S. states, as well as globally.
Segment (Location)
 
Leased Facilities
 
Owned Facilities
 
Customer Facilities (3)
 
Total
Transportation (North America) (1)
 
386

 
130

 
9

 
525

Transportation (Europe)
 
173

 
22

 

 
195

Transportation (Other) (2)
 
8

 

 

 
8

Logistics (North America)
 
190

 
1

 
128

 
319

Logistics (Europe)
 
205

 
7

 
169

 
381

Logistics (Other) (2)
 
49

 

 
15

 
64

Corporate
 
12

 

 

 
12

Total
 
1,023

 
160

 
321

 
1,504

(1)
Of our owned facilities, 126 were freight service centers for our LTL business throughout the U.S.
(2)
Locations not in North America or Europe; primarily in Asia.
(3)
Locations owned or leased by customers.
We lease our current executive office located in Greenwich, Connecticut, as well as our national operations center in Charlotte, North Carolina, our shared-services center in Portland, Oregon and various office facilities in France, the U.K. and India to support our global executive and shared-services functions. We believe that our facilities are sufficient for our current needs.
ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are involved, and will continue to be involved, in numerous legal proceedings arising out of the conduct of our business. These proceedings may include claims for property damage or personal injury incurred in connection with the transportation of freight, claims regarding anti-competitive practices, and employment-related claims, including


 
 
29
 
 
 
 
 
 



claims involving asserted breaches of employee restrictive covenants and tortious interference with contracts. These matters also include numerous purported class action, multi-plaintiff and individual lawsuits, and administrative proceedings that claim either that our owner-operators or contract carriers should be treated as employees, rather than independent contractors, or that some of our drivers were not paid for all compensable time or were not provided with required meal or rest breaks. These lawsuits and proceedings may seek substantial monetary damages (including claims for unpaid wages, overtime, failure to provide meal and rest periods, unreimbursed business expenses and other items), injunctive relief, or both. Additionally, we are subject to shareholder litigation regarding our public filings with the SEC. For additional information about these matters, please see Note 18—Commitments and Contingencies to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
We do not believe that the ultimate resolution of any matters to which we are presently party will have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition or cash flows. However, the results of these matters cannot be predicted with certainty, and an unfavorable resolution of one or more of these matters could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.


 
 
30
 
 
 
 
 
 



PART II
ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Common Stock
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol XPO.
As of February 5, 2020, there were approximately 135 record holders of our common stock. We have never paid, and have no immediate plans to pay, cash dividends on our common stock.
Stock Performance Graph
The graph below compares the cumulative five-year total return of holders of our common stock with the cumulative total returns, including reinvestment of any dividends, of the Russell MidCap index, the Dow Jones Transportation Average index and the S&P 400 MidCap index. SEC rules require that if an index is selected that is different from the index used in the immediately preceding fiscal year, the total return must be compared with both the newly selected index and the index used in the immediately preceding year. The graph in our 2018 Annual Report on Form 10-K included a comparison of our common stock with the Dow Jones Transportation Average index and the Russell MidCap index. However, we believe that the S&P 400 Midcap index, which includes XPO, is more appropriate than the Russell Midcap index, because the S&P 400 Midcap generally encompasses companies with market capitalizations that are more comparable to XPO. Consequently, we have included both the Russell MidCap and the S&P 400 Midcap indices in the graph. The graph tracks the performance of a $100 investment in our common stock and in each index from December 31, 2014 to December 31, 2019.
http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=13357008&doc=14


 
 
31
 
 
 
 
 
 



 
 
12/31/14
 
12/31/15
 
12/31/16
 
12/31/17
 
12/31/18
 
12/31/19
XPO Logistics, Inc.
 
$
100.00

 
$
66.66

 
$
105.58

 
$
224.05

 
$
139.53

 
$
194.96

Russell Midcap
 
$
100.00

 
$
97.56

 
$
111.02

 
$
131.58

 
$
119.66

 
$
156.21

Dow Jones Transportation Average
 
$
100.00

 
$
83.24

 
$
101.83

 
$
121.19

 
$
106.26

 
$
128.39

S&P 400 Midcap
 
$
100.00

 
$
97.82

 
$
118.11

 
$
137.30

 
$
122.08

 
$
154.07

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
None.
ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following tables set forth our selected historical and quarterly consolidated financial data. During 2015, we acquired Con-way Inc. and Norbert Dentressangle, and have included the results of operations of the acquired businesses from the date of acquisition. Additionally, we divested our North American Truckload operation in the fourth quarter of 2016. As a result, our period to period results of operations vary depending on the dates and sizes of these acquisitions and divestitures. Accordingly, this selected financial data is not necessarily comparable or indicative of our future results. This financial data should be read together with our Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and other financial data appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report.
 
 
As of or For the Years Ended December 31,
(In millions, except per share data)
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Operating Results:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
 
$
16,648

 
$
17,279

 
$
15,381

 
$
14,619

 
$
7,623

Operating income (loss) (1)
 
821

 
704

 
582

 
464

 
(29
)
Income (loss) before income taxes
 
569

 
566

 
261

 
107

 
(283
)
Net income (loss) (2)
 
440

 
444

 
360

 
85

 
(192
)
Net income (loss) attributable to common shareholders (3)
 
379

 
390

 
312

 
63

 
(246
)
Per Share Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic earnings (loss) per share
 
$
3.95

 
$
3.17

 
$
2.72

 
$
0.57

 
$
(2.65
)
Diluted earnings (loss) per share
 
3.57

 
2.88

 
2.45

 
0.53

 
(2.65
)
Financial Position:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets (4)
 
$
14,128

 
$
12,270

 
$
12,602

 
$
11,698

 
$
12,643

Long-term debt, less current portion
 
5,182

 
3,902

 
4,418

 
4,732

 
5,273

Preferred stock
 
41

 
41

 
41

 
42

 
42

Total equity
 
2,896

 
3,970

 
4,010

 
3,038

 
3,061

(1)
Operating income for 2017 and 2016 reflects the retrospective effects from the January 1, 2018 adoption of Accounting Standard Update (“ASU”) 2017-07, Compensation - Retirement Benefits (Topic 715): “Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost.”
(2)
Our net income for 2017 included a $173 million benefit related to the revaluation of our net deferred tax liabilities as a result of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”).
(3)
Net loss attributable to common shareholders for the year ended December 31, 2015 reflects beneficial conversion charges of $52 million on Series C Preferred Stock that were recorded as deemed distributions during the third quarter of 2015.
(4)
Total assets for 2019 reflects the January 1, 2019 adoption of ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842).


 
 
32
 
 
 
 
 
 



Our unaudited results of operations for each of the quarters in the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 are summarized below:
(In millions, except per share data)
 
First Quarter
 
Second Quarter
 
Third Quarter
 
Fourth Quarter (2) (3)
2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
 
$
4,120

 
$
4,238

 
$
4,154

 
$
4,136

Operating income
 
132

 
258

 
229

 
202

Net income
 
52

 
145

 
136

 
107

Net income attributable to common shareholders (1)
 
43

 
122

 
117

 
96

Basic earnings per share (1)
 
0.40

 
1.32

 
1.27

 
1.04

Diluted earnings per share (1)
 
0.37

 
1.19

 
1.14

 
0.93

2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
 
$
4,192

 
$
4,363

 
$
4,335

 
$
4,389

Operating income
 
141

 
228

 
209

 
126

Net income
 
79

 
159

 
115

 
91

Net income attributable to common shareholders (1)
 
67

 
138

 
101

 
84

Basic earnings per share (1)
 
0.56

 
1.14

 
0.81

 
0.67

Diluted earnings per share (1)
 
0.50

 
1.03

 
0.74

 
0.62

(1)
The sum of the quarterly Net income attributable to common shareholders and earnings per share may not equal annual amounts due to differences in the weighted-average number of shares outstanding during the respective periods and the impact of the two-class method of calculating earnings per share.
(2)
The fourth quarter of 2019 included a restructuring charge of $21 million and gains on sales of property and equipment of $37 million.
(3)
The fourth quarter of 2018 included a litigation charge of $26 million, a gain on the sale of an equity investment of $24 million and a restructuring charge of $19 million.


 
 
33
 
 
 
 
 
 



ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Overview
XPO Logistics is a top ten global provider of cutting-edge supply chain solutions to the most successful companies in the world. We are organized as two reportable segments: Transportation and Logistics. Our Transportation segment facilitates the movement of raw materials, parts and finished goods. We accomplish this by using our proprietary technology, third-party independent carriers and our transportation assets and service centers. Our transportation services include truck brokerage, expedite, intermodal, drayage, last mile, less-than-truckload (“LTL”), full truckload, global forwarding and managed transportation.
In our Logistics segment, which we also refer to as supply chain or contract logistics, we provide a wide range of services differentiated by our proprietary technology and our ability to customize solutions for customers. Our services include value-added warehousing, distribution and inventory management, omnichannel and e-commerce fulfillment, reverse logistics, cold chain solutions, packaging and labeling, factory support, aftermarket support and order personalization services. In addition, our Logistics segment provides highly engineered, customized solutions and supply chain optimization services, including advanced automation and predictive volume flow management.
This discussion focuses on our fiscal 2019 results, compared with fiscal 2018 results. The discussion of our fiscal 2018 results, compared with fiscal 2017 results, can be found in Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Part II, Item 7 of our 2018 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Potential Strategic Alternatives
In January 2020, we announced that XPO has commenced a review of strategic alternatives, including the possible sale or spin-off of one or more of our business units, in order to maximize shareholder value. A timetable has not been set for the completion of the review process and we have not determined which, if any, business units would be sold or spun off. However, we do not intend to sell or spin off our North American less-than-truckload unit.
Consolidated Summary Financial Table
 
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
Percent of Revenue
(Dollars in millions)
 
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
Revenue
 
$
16,648

 
$
17,279

 
100.0
 %
 
100.0
 %
Cost of transportation and services
 
8,303

 
9,013

 
49.9
 %
 
52.2
 %
Direct operating expense
 
5,679

 
5,725

 
34.1
 %
 
33.1
 %
SG&A expense
 
1,845

 
1,837

 
11.1
 %
 
10.6
 %
Operating income
 
821

 
704

 
4.9
 %
 
4.1
 %
Other expense (income)
 
(54
)
 
(109
)
 
(0.3
)%
 
(0.6
)%
Foreign currency loss
 
9

 
3

 
0.1
 %
 
 %
Debt extinguishment loss
 
5

 
27

 
 %
 
0.2
 %
Interest expense
 
292

 
217

 
1.8
 %
 
1.3
 %
Income before income tax provision
 
569

 
566

 
3.4
 %
 
3.3
 %
Income tax provision
 
129

 
122

 
0.8
 %
 
0.7
 %
Net income
 
$